1Shell International Exploration and Production, Houston, Texas, USA
2Graduate School of Fisheries Science and Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, 1–14 Bunkyomachi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
Received: 06 Sep 2013 – Discussion started: 17 Oct 2013
Abstract. Knickpoints often form in bedrock rivers in response to base-level lowering. These knickpoints can migrate upstream without dissipating. In the case of alluvial rivers, an impulsive lowering of base level due to, for example, a fault associated with an earthquake or dam removal commonly produces smooth, upstream-progressing degradation; the knickpoint associated with suddenly lowered base level quickly dissipates. Here, however, we use experiments to demonstrate that under conditions of Froude-supercritical flow over an alluvial bed, an instantaneous drop in base level can lead to the formation of upstream-migrating knickpoints that do not dissipate. The base-level fall can generate a single knickpoint, or multiple knickpoints. Multiple knickpoints take the form of cyclic steps, that is, trains of upstream-migrating bedforms, each bounded by a hydraulic jump upstream and downstream. In our experiments, trains of knickpoints were transient, eventually migrating out of the alluvial reach as the bed evolved to a new equilibrium state regulated with lowered base level. Thus the allogenic perturbation of base-level fall can trigger the autogenic generation of multiple knickpoints which are sustained until the alluvial reach recovers a graded state.
Revised: 05 Mar 2014 – Accepted: 24 Mar 2014 – Published: 05 May 2014
Cantelli, A. and Muto, T.: Multiple knickpoints in an alluvial river generated by a single instantaneous drop in base level: experimental investigation, Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 271-278, doi:10.5194/esurf-2-271-2014, 2014.