Short Communication: Evidence for non-Gaussian distribution of rock weathering rates
Summary: This study shows that the weathering rates of limestone, determined from of an ancient eroded edifice, can exhibit highly non-Gaussian behavior. Moreover, the asymmetric long-tailed curve was found to have similar characteristics to those of rate distributions measured on microscopic regions of limestone surfaces in laboratory experiments. Such similar behavior could reflect analogous chemical and mechanical weathering mechanisms operating over a range of spatial and temporal scales.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 441-445, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-441-2015, 2015
Denudation rates across the Pamir based on 10Be concentrations in fluvial sediments: dominance of topographic over climatic factors
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 423-439, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-423-2015, 2015
Vertical movements of frost mounds in subarctic permafrost regions analyzed using geodetic survey and satellite interferometry
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 409-421, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-409-2015, 2015
Groundwater seepage landscapes from distant and local sources in experiments and on Mars
Summary: Groundwater seepage creates valleys with typical theater-shaped valley heads, which are found on Earth and on Mars. For a better interpretation of these systems, we conducted scale experiments on the formation such valleys. We find that entire landscapes, instead of just the shape of the valleys, provide insights into the source of groundwater. Landscapes filled with valleys indicate a local groundwater source in contrast to sparsely dissected landscapes formed by a distal source of groundwater.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 389-408, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-389-2015, 2015
High natural erosion rates are the backdrop for present-day soil erosion in the agricultural Middle Hills of Nepal
Summary: Soils are vital resources put at risk by erosional loss. Evaluating agricultural effects on erosion is complicated where natural rates are high, as in central Nepal. This study infers erosion rates over thousands of years and compares these rates to those observed over the short term. Results suggest that effects of agriculture are small and that most erosion takes place through natural processes. However, present-day erosion on degraded lands is significantly faster than over the long term.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 363-387, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-363-2015, 2015
Sensitivity analysis and implications for surface processes from a hydrological modelling approach in the Gunt catchment, high Pamir Mountains
Summary: A semi-distributed hydrological model is used to analyse the hydrological cycle of a glaciated high-mountain catchment in the Pamirs. We overcome data scarcity by utilising various raster data sets as meteorological input. Temperature in combination with the amount of snow provided in winter play the key role in the annual cycle. This implies that expected Earth surface processes along precipitation and altitude gradients differ substantially.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 333-362, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-333-2015, 2015
Morphology of the Kosi megafan channels
Summary: This study mainly focused on the comparison between braided river channels and meandering river channels. We show that the morphology of braided and meandering channels are comparable and their width, depth and slope scale in same way against water discharge. This is the key finding of our study and it has never been tested before.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 321-331, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-321-2015, 2015
The role of log jams and exceptional flood events in mobilizing coarse particulate organic matter in a steep headwater stream
Summary: The export of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) from mountain catchments seems to be strongly linked to rising discharge, but the mechanism leading to this is unclear. We show that log jams in a steep headwater stream are an effective barrier for CPOM export. Exceptional discharge events play a dual role: First, they destroy existing jams, releasing stored material. Second, they intensify channel--hillslope coupling, thereby recruiting logs to the channel, around which new jams can form.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 311-320, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-311-2015, 2015
Bedload transport controls bedrock erosion under sediment-starved conditions
Summary: We applied a spatiotemporally highly resolved dataset of discharge, sediment transport and bedrock erosion data to assess the validity of landscape evolution models at the process scale (resolution of square meters and minutes). The tools effect is found to be the dominant driver of erosion and an easy model is able to predict measured erosion. For larger scales common discharge-dependend modeling with a discharge threshold is adequate to regive the overal trend of the erosion signal.
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 291-309, doi:10.5194/esurf-3-291-2015, 2015