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Earth Surface Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 271-278, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
05 May 2014
Multiple knickpoints in an alluvial river generated by a single instantaneous drop in base level: experimental investigation
A. Cantelli1 and T. Muto2 1Shell International Exploration and Production, Houston, Texas, USA
2Graduate School of Fisheries Science and Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, 1–14 Bunkyomachi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
Abstract. Knickpoints often form in bedrock rivers in response to base-level lowering. These knickpoints can migrate upstream without dissipating. In the case of alluvial rivers, an impulsive lowering of base level due to, for example, a fault associated with an earthquake or dam removal commonly produces smooth, upstream-progressing degradation; the knickpoint associated with suddenly lowered base level quickly dissipates. Here, however, we use experiments to demonstrate that under conditions of Froude-supercritical flow over an alluvial bed, an instantaneous drop in base level can lead to the formation of upstream-migrating knickpoints that do not dissipate. The base-level fall can generate a single knickpoint, or multiple knickpoints. Multiple knickpoints take the form of cyclic steps, that is, trains of upstream-migrating bedforms, each bounded by a hydraulic jump upstream and downstream. In our experiments, trains of knickpoints were transient, eventually migrating out of the alluvial reach as the bed evolved to a new equilibrium state regulated with lowered base level. Thus the allogenic perturbation of base-level fall can trigger the autogenic generation of multiple knickpoints which are sustained until the alluvial reach recovers a graded state.

Citation: Cantelli, A. and Muto, T.: Multiple knickpoints in an alluvial river generated by a single instantaneous drop in base level: experimental investigation, Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 271-278,, 2014.
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